The open research center project """"Interdisciplinary fundamental research toward realization of a quantum computer"""" has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Japan for five years. This is a collection of the research outcomes by the members engaged in the project. To make the presentation self-contained, it starts with an overview by Mikio Nakahara, which serves as a concise introduction to quantum information and quantum computing. Subsequent contributions include subjects from physics, chemistry, mathematics, and information science, reflecting upon the wide variety of scientists working under this project. These contributions introduce NMR quantum computing and related techniques, number theory and coding theory, quantum error correction, photosynthesis, non-classical correlations and entanglement, neutral atom quantum computer, among others. Each of the contributions will serve as a short introduction to these cutting edge research fields.

Description-Table Of Contents

Computing with quanta / M. Nakahara -- Implementation of a selective two-qubit gate operation in a neutral atom quantum computer / E. H. Lapasar ... [et al.] -- Magnetic resonance as an experimental device for quantum computing research / M. Chiba and Y. Kondo -- Introduction to surface code quantum computation / Y. Wan -- Quantum computing and number theory / Y. Sasaki -- Linear preservers in nonclassical correlation theories: an introduction / A. SaiToh, R. Rahimi and M. Nakahara -- Identification of the Hamiltonian of a 3-particle Ising model with local transverse fields / M. A. Fasihi ... [et al.] -- How to evaluate the area surrounded by segments on a unit sphere? / Y. Kondo -- Microscopic properties of quantum annealing - application to fully frustrated Ising systems / S. Tanaka -- Implementation of unitary quantum error correction / H. Tomita -- Spin crossover properties of Iron(II) complexes with a N[symbol]O[symbol] donor set by extended [symbol]-conjugated Schiff-base ligands / T. Kuroda -- NMR spectroscopic studies of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophylls purified from green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria / Y. Hirai and Y. Saga -- Spectroscopic studies of individual extramembranous light-harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria / Y. Saga -- Entanglement operator for a multi-qubit system / C. Bagnasco, Y. Kondo and M. Nakahara -- Some topics in coding theory / K. Chinen.